Molecular level presentation

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Kinetic Theory

According to the elementary kinetic theory of matter, the molecules of a substance are in constant motion. This motion depends on the average kinetic energy of molecules, which depends in turn on the temperature of the substance. Furthermore, the collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic except when chemical changes or molecular excitations occur.

See Main Article Kinetic theory

Intermolecular Forces

In general, the intermolecular forces of a solid are greater than those of a liquid. This trend can be observed when looking at the force it takes to separate a solid as compared to that required to separate a liquid. Also, the molecules in a solid are much more confined to their position in the solid’s structure as compared to the molecules of a liquid, thereby affecting their ability to move. A gas differs from both a solid and a liquid in that its kinetic energy is great enough to overcome the intermolecular forces, causing the molecules to separate without restraint. The intermolecular forces in a gas decrease as the distance between the molecules increases. Both gravitational and electrical forces contribute to intermolecular forces; for many solids and liquids, the electrical forces are on the order of 1029 times greater than the gravitational force

See Main Article Intermolecular forces

Boltzmann Transport Equation

See Main Article Boltzmann transport equation

Cohesion and Adhesion

See Main Article Cohesion and adhesion

Enthalpy and Energy

See Main Article Enthalpy and energy